General information and history of Ciskei
Before the 1990's, within South Africa ten homelands were created.
Four of these homelands were granted independence by South Africa.
Transkei in 1976, Bophuthatswana in 1977, Venda in 1979, and Ciskei in 1981.
Before 1981, Ciskei was part of the former Black National State within South Africa.
In 1981, Ciskei was granted independence by South Africa, however this independence was not recognized by the United Nations, nor any country in the world.
In 1994, Ciskei became integrated into South Africa.
Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa.
The region produced sorghum, wheat, sunflower, timber, leather and textiles.
It was also one of the two homelands of the Xhosa people with the other one being Transkei.
The language Xhosa was spoken in Ciskei.
In 1972, Ciskei was declared self-governing under the rule of Lennox Sebe. But in 1990, Gqozo replaced Sebe and ruled as a dictator of Ciskei.
This led to what is known as the Bisho massacre in 1992.